Tehran, Capital of Iran
Tehran is the name of both the capital of Iran and the province that the capital is located in. This Province is almost in the north of Iran. More preciously, Tehran is surrounded by Alborz Mountains. Mazandaran Province is on its northern borders, the eastern neighbor is Semnan, the western neighbor is Alborz Province and Qom is to the southern border of Tehran.
Tehran is a sprawling modern city with an immense network of highways unparalleled in Western Asia. Also, it is the hub of the country’s railway and airfare networks. In addition, the city has numerous large museums, art centers, palace complexes, and cultural centers. In the 20th century, lots of people have immigrated to Tehran from all around Iran and turned this city into a cosmopolitan megalopolis.
Tehran has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate because of its geographic location. Actually, towering Alborz Mountains located in its north and the country’s central desert in its south. To sum up, it is mild in spring and autumn, hot and dry in summer, and cold and wet in winter.
Archaeological excavations prove the existence of a settlement in Tehran as far back as 6000 BC. During the 9th century, Tehran was just known as a village. In the early 13th century, following the destruction of Ray by Mongols, many of its inhabitants escaped to Tehran. Then, it became a residence of the Safavid rulers in the 17th century. Shah Tahmasp I built a bazaar and a wall around the city.
Kings of the Qajar dynasty (1789-1925) chose Tehran as their capital. They built many palaces and other incredible buildings in Tehran such as Golestan Palace, Sa’ad Abad Palace, Niavaran Palace, etc. Qajar is the soul of Tehran, you can see their remains everywhere around the city. After Qajars, Reza Pahlavi founded the Pahlavi dynasty which didn’t last for a long time.
On September 8, 1978, demonstrations against the Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, son of Reza Pahlavi, led to riots. Revolution paralyzed the country; Muhammad Reza Pahlavi fled the country and Ayatollah Khomeini returned from France. Millions of Iranians enthusiastically greeted him on February 1, 1979. Iran officially came to the Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979.
During the 1980 —1988 Iran-Iraq War, Tehran was the scene of repeated Scud Missile and airstrikes. Actually, residential and industrial areas were targeted within the city, resulting in thousands of civilians’ casualties. Material damages repaired soon after each strike. After the war, modern, high-rise buildings dominate the city’s skyline and new modern apartments have and are replacing the few remaining old houses at a rapid pace.
These are a few examples of Tehran’s attractions:
- Golestan Palace
- National Museum of Iran
- Sa’d Abad Palace Complex
- Glassware and Ceramics Museum of Iran
- The Carpet Museum of Iran
- Tehran’s Under Glass Painting Museum
- Niavaran Palace Complex
- Museum of Contemporary Art features the works of great artists such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso, and Andy Warhol
- National Jewelry Museum of Iran
- Milad Tower
- Nature Bridge (one of the modern sides of Tehran)
This city is home to the Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia. It is claimed to be the largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. The collection is comprised of a set of crowns and thrones, some 30 tiaras, numerous aigrettes, jewel-studded swords, and shields. Also, it includes a vast amount of precious loose gems, including the largest collections of emeralds, rubies, and diamonds in the world. The Imperial Crown Jewels are still on display in the Iranian Central Bank in Tehran.